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Fertility is the natural ability to conceive a child. To conceive naturally, a woman’s reproductive system must release an egg from one of the ovaries; a man’s reproductive system must produce sperm cells in the testes; a couple must have sexual intercourse and the man must ejaculate; ejaculation brings the sperm cells in contact with the woman’s egg in the fallopian tubes (known as fertilization); the fertilized egg divides severally to form a baby. However, fertility does not come easily to everyone. There are no obvious symptoms of infertility. The causes of infertility may be age (women over 35), two or more successive miscarriages, irregular menstrual cycles, unusually light menstrual bleeding, painful menstrual cramps, unusually heavy periods or abnormal menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain or pain during sexual intercourse, sexual dysfunction (including erectile dysfunction or low libido), obesity, excessive drinking, and use of recreational drugs. Risk factors include smoking (men and women); chronic diseases and with their associated treatments (allergy medications, antidepressants, radiation therapy, diabetes, hypothyroidism, periodontal disease, untreated celiac disease); hormonal imbalances in both men and women (endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, premature ovarian failure, and low testosterone); and reproductive tract infection e.g. STD, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). To improve fertility and reduce the risk of infertility, it is recommended to avoid douching (it washes away important cervical mucus and good bacteria), avoid harmful lubricants, have sex more often, have sex during the fertile window, eat a nutritionally balanced diet, take folic acid supplements, avoid stress and get adequate sleep. Fertility testing involves a hysterosalpingogram (HSG) - a special kind of x-ray used to evaluate the uterus and fallopian tubes, and a blood test to measure hormone levels of semen (for men). Fertility specialists provide a range of treatments for infertility, including assisted reproductive technologies (ART) - in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT); injectable fertility drugs: gonadotropins (e.g, Follistim, Ovidrel); insemination: intracervical insemination (ICI), intrauterine insemination (IUI), intracervical insemination (ICI), intratubal insemination (ITU), intravaginal insemination (IVI); surgery: laparoscopic surgery, ovarian drilling; oral fertility drugs such as and Arimidex & Clomid; and surrogacy.