Orthopedics is the medical specialty that focuses on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders of the musculoskeletal system, specifically the bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves. Orthopedic surgeons treat patients of all ages. A typical session with an orthopedic surgeon involves discussing the history of illness/injury; diagnosis using x-rays or blood tests; treatment with medication, exercise, casting, surgery; rehabilitation by recommending exercises or physical therapy to restore movement, strength and function; prevention with information and treatment plans to prevent injury or slow the progression of diseases. Common injuries and disorders treated are sports injuries; back pain, ruptured disks and spinal stenosis; bone tumors; carpal tunnel; club foot, bow-legs and hip dysplasia; orthopedic trauma; limb lengthening; achilles tendon injuries, bunions and foot and ankle injuries; Osteoporosis; arthritis; fractures. Types of surgical treatments used in orthopedics are: Arthroscopy - special cameras and equipment to visualize, diagnose and treat problems inside a joint; Osteotomy - correcting bone deformity by cutting and repositioning the bone; Arthroplasty - the replacement of entire joints that are damaged by an accident or that have degraded over time due to conditions such as arthritis; Soft tissue repair—the mending of soft tissue, such as torn tendons or ligaments.