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A retina specialist is a medical doctor with specialty in ophthalmology and sub-specialty in diseases and surgery of the vitreous body of the eye and the retina (vitreoretinal medicine). The retina is the delicate nerve tissue that lines the back inside-wall of the eye, while the vitreous is the jelly material that fills the central cavity of the eye (it supports the retina). The retina senses light and sends signals to the brain to allow vision. Retina surgery is applicable to any age group. Common tools used by retina specialists are microscopes and lasers. Retina specialists treat conditions such as Age-related macular degeneration - the reduction of sharp central vision due to ageing. It occurs when a part of the retina called the macula is damaged, which is responsible for detailed vision; Macular hole/pucker - scar tissue that has formed on the macula which can cause blurred and distorted central vision; Diabetic retinopathy - usually occurs in Type 1 diabetics, when high blood sugar levels damage blood vessels in the retina, causing them to swell, leak, or close, which prevents blood from circulating properly in the eye. There are two types: early stage (non-proliferative), and advanced stage (proliferative); Retinal tears and detachment - when the retina begins to pull away from the vitreous, causing flashes and floaters, which can cause blindness of left untreated; Endophthalmitis - inflammation affecting the vitreous fluid of the eye; Penetrating ocular trauma - there are injuries that penetrate the eye e.g. a high-velocity or sharp object hitting the eye.