1 Star: Did not meet expectations
2 Star: Slightly below expectations
3 Star: Met expectations
4 Star: Slightly above expectations
5 Star: Exceeded expectations
Frigidity is a sexual dysfunction that commonly affects women, preventing them from experiencing sexual satisfaction. Female sexual dysfunction can happen at any age of life. It is the inability of a woman to experience orgasm during sexual intercourse, non-responsiveness to sexual stimulus, lack of interest in having sex. It may happen due to vaginismus (vaginal spasms) or dyspareunia (pain) during intercourse. Frigidity can be triggered by psychological or emotional conflicts within or outside the sexual relationship such as stress, anxiety, depression, fatigue, worry, guilt, a history of sexual abuse, fear of painful intercourse, fear of pregnancy, undesirability of a partner, undesirability of the sexual environment/location, the use of alcohol or drugs. Medical conditions can cause sexual dysfunction, such as diabetes, heart disease, neurological diseases, hormonal imbalances, menopause, kidney disease, liver failure, and urinary tract infections. The side effects of antidepressant drugs, blood pressure medications, antihistamines and chemotherapy drugs, and hormone fluctuations during pregnancy, after childbirth, and menopause can decrease sexual desire and the body's ability to experience orgasm. Other risk factors are neurological conditions, such as spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis, and gynecological conditions, such as vulvovaginal atrophy, infections or lichen sclerosus. Diagnosis is done via a pelvic exam by a doctor, who checks for physical changes that affect sexual enjoyment, such as thinning of genital tissues, decreased skin elasticity, scarring or pain; and blood tests to rule out underlying health conditions that might contribute to sexual dysfunction. Treatment options for frigidity include improving communication with one’s partner (be open and discuss feelings), and seeking the help of a psychologist for personal or couple’s counseling. People can consult a gynecologist, general practitioner or complementary health professional for issues with low libido. Medical treatments for hormone related female sexual dysfunction include Estrogen therapy - in the form of a vaginal ring, cream or tablet, which helps to improving vaginal tone and elasticity, increasing vaginal blood flow and enhancing lubrication; Ospemifene - a selective estrogen receptor modulator that helps reduce pain during sex for women with vulvovaginal atrophy; Androgen therapy for men and women; Flibanserin - to boost sex drive in premenopausal women with low sexual desire.