Kung fu (meaning ’skillful work’) is a martial art fighting style that advocates virtue and peace, rather than aggression or violence. Kung fu, like many other martial arts, uses techniques such as striking, kicking, grappling and throwing, weapon skills, and seizing and locking the joints. Common kung fu forms and styles are Shaolin, Tai Chi and Qigong, Long Fist, Eagle Claw, and Taiji Quan. Training involves stretching exercises, muscle strength, and vital energy. The associated benefits of kung fu are freedom from illness, improved sleep quality, greater clarity of mind and calmness, increased alertness, increased physical strength & flexibility, faster ability to react, and an increased ability to endure hard work and to concentrate without mental fatigue. Further, it helps to develop moral character and traits such as respect, courage, tolerance, perseverance, discipline, loyalty, and reverence for life. While practicing kung fu, the fighter creates moving continuous shapes that resemble a pyramid or torus, which attract universal energy. The creation of the shapes is initiated from one of five basic foot positions: normal upright posture and the four stances called dragon, frog, horse riding, and snake. It is believed that creating the shapes with a humble heart helps to produce a more spiritual and balanced person. These are all qualities that are transferable to everyday life. Kung fu fighters usually wear satin tops with Chinese ‘frog-style’ buttons in a variety of bright colors. Western Kung Fu use satin colored sashes to signify ranking, however this is not the norm in traditional kung fu schools.