Otolaryngology (called ENT for short) is the medical specialty that treats diseases and disorders of the ears, nose, and throat. It is performed by an otolaryngologist, a Medical Doctor who specializes in these disorders and has extensive training in both medicine and surgery. There 8 common areas of expertise in otolaryngology, which are: General Otolaryngology - all pediatric ear, nose and throat problems, medical and surgical disease of the tonsils and adenoids; Head & Neck Oncology - treatment of all benign masses of the head and neck, anterior and lateral skull base surgery; Microvascular Free tissue transfer reconstruction; Voice / Swallowing Disorders - including vocal cord paralysis, speech and swallowing rehabilitation; Facial Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery - e.g. cosmetic BOTOX, post trauma reconstructive surgery; Sleep and Snoring Disorders - involves sleep-disordered breathing, snoring, nonsurgical treatment of sleep apnea; Rhinology / Nasal and Sinus Surgery - diagnosis and treatment of nasal and sinus diseases, such as endoscopic sinus surgery; Otology / Neurotology/ Later Skull Base Surgery - management of acute and chronic ear disease including laser stapedectomy, management of benign and malignant skull base tumors, causes of hearing loss and dizziness/imbalance/vertigo. Common surgical procedures used are insertion of grommets for glue ear, tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy, septoplasty, microlaryngoscopy, oesophagoscopy, endoscopic sinus surgery, tympanomastoid surgery to reconstruct and remove epithelial inclusions (cholesteatoma) within the middle ear, open operations to remove neck lumps, and salivary gland tumours, tracheostomy.